How many countries in the world?
197 countries if you’re being technical, 215 from a travel stand point, although it’s pretty complicated, let’s have a look…
Visiting every country in the world was a thousand times tougher than I ever expected. For a start, I had to sit back and think ‘OK, but hang on, how many countries in the world? 200 or so?’ It’s so tough to get a definitive answer. Bear with me….
Generally speaking though, there are around 200 countries, but generally doesn’t cut it when you’re trying to become one of the few people to officially do it! So I had to delve a little deeper, and the answer was found somewhere from the United Nations list (193 recognised countries) and the FIFA football list (211 members), but how can you put an official number on it?!
What is a country?!
First of all, we need to think what makes a country a country. Does it have to have a flag, a government, it’s own currency, a passport? It’s so difficult to decide. So let’s say this – an independent country is not only a self-governed nation with its own authorities, but its status needs the international diplomatic recognition of sovereignty from at least some other sovereign countries. So you need to manage all your own affairs AND have other countries understand and recognise that you are indeed a country. Which stops me from declaring my apartment ‘johnnyland’ and it being an officially country. Shame.
Initially, being a huge football fan, I wanted to work off the FIFA list, but it was just plain wrong. Football has more national teams than any other sport so that’s a great starting point too, and the federation ‘FIFA’ is a huge global body. But, alas, politics still plays a part. For example, the UK is 1 country but FIFA used Northern Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales as 4 separate ‘countries’, despite all using the same British pound, same British passport, having the same British queen and all using the same British Government (albeit slightly differently). So without getting political, and growing up in Northern Ireland that’s quite tough (!), the FIFA list isn’t strictly correct, so onto the next one. The United Nations….
THE UNITED NATIONS SAY THERE ARE 193 ‘COUNTRIES’…
The United Nations list is probably the best to work off, it’s pretty expansive, not TOO political (more on that in a second), and if you’re recognised by the UN then realistically you’re pretty much a country. So they say they have 193 members. So that means 193 countries, right? Not quite!
The UN also see 2 permanent observer states in Palestine and the Vatican City, both of which I see as countries and Palestine, in particular, is one of my favourites, so that would make the count 193 + 2 = 195. So 195 countries? Calm down sailor, we’re not there yet. That then excludes Taiwan (recognised by 22 countries), and Kosovo (recognised by 109 other countries), so what to do?
Taiwan is excluded because China claims them, the rest of the world don’t want to harm their relations with China due to all the trading opportunities etc, so they too cut ties with Taiwan, despite the fact that very much is a country, so that makes the cut. Incidentally, Taiwan is a brilliant place to visit, I’d massively recommend it. Anyway, now we’re at 196.
Kosovo is a political one too, since declaring itself independent from Serbia in 2008 it’s had a tough ride, but again without getting overly political, it’s recognised by countries such as the UK, Germany, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and a lot more, as well as being a member of the IMF, The World Bank, the IOC etc, yet the countries that don’t recognise it include Iraq, Iran, Angola, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Mali, Nigeria, Russia, Syria and Sudan, so I have gone with including it in my list and I personally recognise Kosovo as a country, so that makes 197!
So there are 197 countries in the world?
Yes, kind of. There are 197 countries in the world if you are aligned with the technical aspects of things alone, rather than a practical sense. Can you say you’ve been to every country when you have that big block of Greenland on a map, starting back at you, chanting “you cheated and you know it, we’re not really Denmark”. Bearing that in mind, there are 197, but in the sense of pure travel, it’s more.
So here’s the full list of EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD according to the technical 197 list that I initially visited, in the order I visited them:
- Republic of Ireland
- The Netherlands
- South Korea
- The Philippines
- East Timor
- Sri Lanka
- South Africa
- North Korea
- Bosnia & Herzegovina
- Vatican City
- San Marino
- Czech Republic
- Papua New Guinea
- New Zealand
- Solomon Islands
- El Salvador
- Costa Rica
- Trinidad and Tobago
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- Saint Lucia
- Antigua and Barbuda
- St Kitts and Nevis
- Dominican Republic
- South Sudan
- Democratic Republic of Congo
- Republic of Congo
- Sao Tome and Principe
- Equatorial Guinea
- Central African Republic
- Ivory Coast
- Burkina Faso
- Sierra Leone
- The Gambia
- Cape Verde
- Marshall islands
- Saudi Arabia
- Norway (COMPLETED MARCH 2017!)
So 197/197, I’ve kind of finished. But I know I’ve cheated a little bit, let me tell you why.
WHERE THERE ARE MORE THAN 197 COUNTRIES. 215 IS MORE DEFINITIVE.
Disputed territories! First up, 2 very dubious visits are included on my 197 list, and I feel like a bit of a fraud – Somalia and Iraq. Somalia has an autonomous region in the north called Somaliland, and although not recognised by many nations, it’s in every way its own country. Passport, government, currency, culture, sports teams. It’s a political reason that it’s not more recognised but it’s as near to a country as it can be. Somaliland is the cheat mode all travelers who try to visit every country in the word use. Me included. Shame on us.
Next up, Iraq. Similar situation, but different politics. Kurdistan, an autonomous region in the north of Iraq isn’t really Iraq. Culturally it’s completely different, legally it’s different in that you can fly in with no visa and get stamped in, whereas in Iraq proper, that’s not possible. They fly their flag proudly, drink Guinness at Irish pub quizzes at the weekend (to that, I can testify!), so I honestly don’t feel like a visit to Iraqi Kurdistan is visiting Iraq. Technically perhaps, but travel shouldn’t be about passing by on a technicality, it should be about seeing the world, experiencing everything we can, and I kind of feel I’ve let myself down a little here.
Nothing is simple when defining what makes a country, so for that reason, there are a lot of disputed territories around the world. Now while Catalonia may fight regularly for independence, they are still very much part of Spain so they certainly can’t be counted. This is not a political endorsement, just a simple fact.
However, the following territories have declared themselves independent (although those declarations aren’t officially ratified by most nations), and therefore not yet recognised by most of the rest of the world:
1. Somaliland (visited 2010)
Declared its independence from Somalia in 1991. Not recognised as a country by any other country, officially still a part of Somalia proper.
2. Nagorno-Karabakh (visited 2013)
Declared its independence in 1991. It isn’t recognised by any UN member states, and by only 3 UN non-members: Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Officially part of Azerbaijan.
3. The Turkish Republic of) Northern Cyprus (visited 2013)
Declared its independence in 1983. It is only recognised by 1 UN member state, Turkey. Officially still part of Cyprus proper.
4. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic/Western Sahara (visited 2015)
Declared its independence in 1976. It is recognised by 47 UN member states (plus 37 additional member states who used to recognise it) as well as South Ossetia. Officially still part of Morocco proper.
5. Transnistria/Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (visited 2012)
Declared its independence in 1990. It isn’t recognised by any UN member states, and by only 3 UN non-members: Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh. Officially part of Moldova.
6. South Ossetia (visited 2018)
Declared its independence in 1991. It is recognised by 4 UN member states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru) and 4 UN non-member states (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh and Transnistria). Officially part of Georgia proper.
7. Abkhazia (visited 2018)
Declared its independence in 1999. It is recognised by 4 UN member states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru) and 3 UN non-member states (South Ossetia, Transnistria and Nagorno-Karabakh). Officially part of Georgia proper.
8. (Iraqi) Kurdistan and beyond (visited Iraqi Kurdistan 2015, yet to visit Iraq proper)
They have their own Kurdistan Regional Government, 32 countries have diplomatic relations in Erbil, Kurdistan’s de facto Capital city ( in addition to the UN, EU etc), they also have ’embassies’ in foreign nations around the world. To visit Iraqi Kurdistan, tt’s visa-free for most western nations, a different situation to Iraq proper where you need an Iraqi visa. It has its own flag, its own sports teams. It’s pretty much a country, not as strong a claim as Somaliland but still, to go to Kurdistan and claim to have visited Iraq is a little weak. I’m guilty of that!
9. Cook Islands
Cook Islanders are New Zealand passport holders, and New Zealand is officially responsible for the defence and foreign affairs of the Cook Islands (and Niue). However, these responsibilities confer New Zealand no rights of control per se. It is however recognised by 11 UN member states. As of 2016, the Cook Islands, Niue, and Kosovo are the only states that participate in UN specialised agencies, but which are not member or observer states of the UN itself.
Niueans are New Zealand passport holders, and New Zealand is officially responsible for the defence and foreign affairs of Niue (and the Cook Islands). However, these responsibilities confer New Zealand no rights of control per se. It is however recognised by 7 UN member states. As of 2016, the Cook Islands, Niue, and Kosovo are the only states that participate in UN specialised agencies, but which are not member or observer states of the UN itself.
AND THE UK?
And then, of course, the devolved situation of the UK with Northern Ireland, Scotland, England and Wales. Here’s when we talk about technicalities, 2 days in London and you’ve visited all of the UK. But what about Scotland for example? The UK is the country by definition, but the devolved situation is difficult, so from a travel standpoint, not a legal/technical one, you should really visit them all. Besides, Edinburgh is one of the best cities in the world, you HAVE to go there.
Furthermore, there are other places that lots of people consider countries but all belong to an actual sovereign member state.
- Hong Kong (rightly or wrongly, China)
- Macau (China)
- Tibet (China)
- Northern Ireland, Scotland, England, Wales (the UK)
- French Guiana (France)
- Puerto Rica (US)
- Lots of the Caribbean (BVI, Guadeloupe, Aruba, USVI, Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos, Anguilla, Saint Martin and more)
- Reunion Island (France)
- French Polynesia (France)
- American Samoa (US)
- Canary Islands (Spain)
- Madeira (Portugal)
- Faroe Islands (part of Denmark)
- Gibraltar (part of the UK)
- Greenland (part of Denmark)
- The Arctic (belongs partly to Norway, Denmark, Canada, the US and Russia)
- The Falklands (part of the UK)
- French Polynesia (part of France)
- Guam (US)
- Tahiti (French Polynesia, and therefore France. Same for Bora Bora!)
So, how many countries in the world? 197 (on a technicality), 215 to be sure.
That’s it, 197 is the technical number, but if we add the 10 disputed territories, that makes 207. Then morally you’d be compelled to add Tibet, Hong Kong, Faroe Islands etc. So after far too many hours online, I’d say there is a solid argument for anyone either claiming to, or wanting to, visit every country in the world, for the 197 countries and these 19 guys:
- Northern Cyprus
- Western Sahara
- South Ossetia
- Iraqi Kurdistan
- Hong Kong
- Faroe Islands
- Northern Ireland
- Cook Islands
Personally, I think Guam, Gibraltar (all places I’ve also visited for the record), French Guiana etc are a push too far, and having a football team is about as far as the argument goes. So with that in mind, that makes 197 + 19 additional nations (-1 for removing the UK and replacing with the 4 nations that make it up) = 215 countries. If Niue and Cook Islanders have New Zealand passports, and Faroe Islanders and Greenlanders have Danish passports then can they really be sovereign states? It’s tough, but having your own devolved Government, culture, autonomy, flag etc is certainly worthy. So now I’m looking at flights to Niue and the Cook islands like the travel freak I am! See you on the road I guess!
I love travel though, box-ticking and border hopping for an hour, or a day, in a country isn’t for me, I mean, does that even really count?! That’s transport, not travel. Sooooo, 215? I want to see the world, the WHOLE WORLD, and I haven’t been to the Faroe Islands or Greenland, so can I ‘colour the map’ because I’ve been to Denmark? Doesn’t feel right. So let’s give it a crack. 215 here I come. Of the 19 additional nations I listed I’ve visited 17 of them on my travels already, so I need to go back to ‘correct’ my Iraq visit, and then hit up Cook Islands, and Niue and I’m actually finally done. No cheating involved!